Genetic characterization and selective breeding of the Philippine green mussel, Perna viridis

Mussel farmers rely on natural collection of broodstock and seed available in the wild. However, the variable nature of spat settlement, unreliable supply of wild spat, and occurrence of diseases can lead to problems in production. A selective breeding program must therefore accompany any hatchery operation geared towards improvement of broodstock and improved culture performance of spats.

The selective breeding program for the Philippine green mussel, which, is being developed, uses broodstock from Samar, Palawan, Bataan, and Capiz. These sites were identified to produce high quality mussels in terms of condition index, meat yield, growth rate, and production, among other characteristics. Samples from all visited sites are characterized using COI, ITS, and 18s genes to determine the genetic divergence of mussels in the Philippines. Microsatellite markers are used to track parentage among the spats produced from the selected broodstock. This will confirm inheritance of desired characteristics from the parent stock.

The project aims to identify molecular markers that will be used to recognize strains/varieties/populations to serve as source of broodstock for selective breeding.

Project Leaders

Dr. Philip Ian Padilla

Dr. Philip Ian Padilla

College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines Visayas (UPV)


  • Readily available seeds for grow-out
  • Improved quality and culture performance of mussel

Target Beneficiaries

  • Mussel farmers
  • Fisheries planner
  • Policy makers


  • Negros Occidental
  • Pangasinan
  • Metro Manila
  • Zambales
  • Bataan
  • Samar
  • Aklan
  • Capiz
  • National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (NIMBB), University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo.

Related projects

Refinement of broodstock maintenance, spawning, larval and spat rearing technologies for sustained seed production of the green mussel (Perna viridis)

The Philippine green mussel hatchery developed by the UP Visayas researchers is patterned (with slight modification) to the shellfish hatchery in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan.